What’s the Difference Between The Three Sub-regions of Rioja, Spain?

Last Updated: August 14, 2021

An In-depth Look at the Wine Region of Rioja Spain

Rioja’s three sub-regions enjoy a diversity of soils, terroirs, and micro-climates, each making wines of unique personality and character.

Rioja Alta: Located on the western side of Rioja, this sub-region has an Atlantic climate and its soils are mostly iron-rich clay mixed with limestone. Due to the sub-region’s varying elevations, the wines produced here can have great structure and high acidity.

Rioja Alavesa: The smallest of the sub-regions, it also experiences an Atlantic climate. In fact, it is the wettest and coolest of the three. The soils are predominantly chalky clay and are situated in terraces. The wines from this region tend to be lighter-bodied.

Rioja Baja (recently renamed Rioja Oriental): This eastern sub-region experiences a much warmer, drier climate due to the Mediterranean influence and its lower elevation. This area, composed mainly of alluvial soils, produces wines with high extract and alcohol, lower in acidity.

RELATED: 22 Best Wineries in Rioja: Everything You Need To Know About Visiting Rioja Spain

Rioja Alta and Rioja Alavesa rightfully enjoy the reputation of producing quality-oriented wines in terms of climate, soil, and style; on the other hand, Rioja Oriental, perhaps unjustly, has not been so lucky due to its flatter terrain and warmer climate. It should be noted that there are some excellent wines being produced in this sub-region as well, be mindful of producers and vintages.

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The Grape Varieties of Rioja Spain
The main grape variety in Rioja is Tempranillo. Other grape varieties grown here include Graciano, Mazuelo and Garnacha.

What Wines Are Being Made in Rioja?

Rioja red wines are predominantly a blend of various indigenous grape varieties, with Tempranillo being the star. It is the most planted red grape in Rioja, occupying 75% of the region and it thrives in Rioja Alta and Rioja Alavesa. Due to the cooler Atlantic climate in these sub-regions, Tempranillo ripens less, vital for creating the “classic Rioja style”: elegant, earthy wines with good color, structure, and high acidity.

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Other important grapes are Graciano, Mazuelo (known as Cariňena in Priorat and Carignan in France), and Garnacha; this grape is enjoying a revival in Rioja Oriental, as the warmer conditions are perfect for the drought-resistant, late-ripening grape. Garnacha provides color, aroma, and alcoholic strength to Rioja blends.

White & Rosé Wines in Rioja

Mainly a red wine region, there are wonderful whites and rosés (rosados) being produced in Rioja. Viura (known as Macabeo in Penedes) is the most widely used grape for white wines, often blended with Garnacha Blanca, Malvasia and international varieties such as Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc. Rosados, mainly made from Tempranillo and Garnacha grapes, can be quite phenomenal. They are often made in the sangrado (better known as saignée) technique, which results in deep-colored, richer wines with gorgeous strawberry and citrus notes.

There are strict requirements in this region and depending on the aging process, Rioja wines can be put in one of four categories:

Cosecha: These wines are typically released in their first or second year and they are fresh, fruity with no ageing capability, they should be enjoyed immediately. Note that this category may also include wines that didn’t meet the certification requirements for Crianza, Reserva and Gran Reserva.

Crianza: Aged a minimum of one year in casks and some months in bottle. White wines have to be aged a minimum of 6 months in casks. Most commonly aged in old oak, lighter in body than Reservas and Gran Reservas. Crianzas are high-quality, accessible wines that are meant for every day drinking.

Reserva: Wines from the best vintages, have to be aged for a minimum of 3 years and at least one year in casks. For white wines, a minimum ageing period of 2 years is required, with at least 6 months in casks. Better grapes are selected at this level, producing wines of excellent quality and cellar capability.

Gran Reserva: Only in exceptional vintages, these wines must have spent at least two years in casks and three years in the bottle. White wines must be aged a minimum of four years, with at least one year in casks. Expect these wines to require additional cellar time as they are highly tannic upon release.

It is important to mention that Rioja is on the verge of reinvention. A new wave of modern producers are now trading the traditional American oak for used French oak, resulting in smoother and less oaky, fruit-driven wines. Expect to find these two different styles of Rioja in the market.

The Three Sub Regions (Appellations) of La Rioja include Rioja Baja, Rioja Alta and Rioja Alavesa.
The Three Sub Regions (Appellations) of La Rioja include Rioja Oriental, Rioja Alta and Rioja Alavesa.

What Makes the Wine of La Rioja Unique?

Rioja is a privileged region for grape growing and winemaking because of the diversity of sub-regions, soils, and terroirs it offers. Each sub-region produces quality wines with distinct characteristics.

In 1991, it was the first region in Spain to carry the DOCa designation; this status is awarded to regions that meet the highest standards of viticultural practices. Aside from Rioja, the only other DOCa region granted this status is Priorat.

MORE: The Different Quality Levels of Wine Producing Regions in Spain (DO, DOC and DOCa)

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In terms of quality vs. value, Rioja wines, particularly Gran Reserva, are arguably among the best deals in the world. It is next to impossible to find another type of long-aged wine at its price point.

What Foods Pair Best With Rioja Wines?

While answering this question, I remembered a quote written by Ernest Hemingway, a huge Rioja fan, in his memoir A Moveable Feast:

In Europe then we thought of wine as something as healthy and normal as food and also as a great giver of happiness and well-being and delight. Drinking wines was not a snobbism nor a sign of sophistication nor a cult; it was as natural as eating and to me as necessary.

Rioja is the ultimate food wine and its multiple styles cater to a wide range of dishes.


Cosecha: Fruity and easy to drink, these wines are pretty versatile and pair well with just about anything from sausages (think chorizo!), cheeses to chili, stews and pastas.

Crianza: These wines present a light tannin structure, good acidity and fruity character, which makes them perfect for a wide variety of dishes such as creamy pastas, chicken, burgers (including veggie), pork, cheese/charcuterie platters, roasted fish and tomato-based sauce dishes.

Reserva and Gran Reserva: Firmer tannins need fatty dishes to soften. Think protein: steaks, lamb chops, veal and foie gras.

For Whites and Rosados:

These are a perfect match for fresh salads, fried dishes, paellas and seafood. 

What Wineries and/or Vineyards Would you Recommend Trying and/or Visiting in Rioja?

There are around 400 producers in the Rioja region, which is a lot of ground to cover (and taste!). I recommend the following quality-focused wineries: El Coto, Bordon (Franco Espanolas), Beronia, CVNE (Viñedos Del Contino, Viña Real, Imperial), Palacios Remondo, Viña Pomal and Lopez de Heredia.

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Comments ( 2 )

  1. One of our most favourite wine trips ever was our trip to Northern Spain almost 2 years ago. We’re heading back to Rioja next month and this was just the article to get us excited again!

    • I agree! We visited Northern Spain about 2 years ago as well and it’s by far one of the most memorable experiences in wine country I’ve had thus far. Everywhere from Rioja, to Basque Country to Priorat. Glad you enjoyed the article, you’ll have another amazing experience and hopefully try some new wines! Producers are getting more and more innovative in Rioja.

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